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to calculate momentum, multiply bullet wt in grs, by velocity in fps, thro out the meaningless zeros. 21.8 momentum factor for such a .45. A .45 has 4x the frontal area of a .22 centerfire, like the 223. A 70 gr sp, at 3100 fps in a 22-250, has less momentum than does such a .45. Yet the 70 gr sp is MANY times more effective at dumping a big dog on his ass, anyone whose ever used such a load knows that.

So the momentum-frontal area" stopping power calcualtion is all WET, when one reaches 3000 fps or so in velocity. Even COOPER says that at 2200 fps, velocity and shock-transmission mean FAR more than does bullet diameter and momentum.

in fact, Jeff said that a 40gr .22 spitzer, at 2200 fps,could both penetrate any practical body armor, and still have adequate stopping power, by means of HYDROSTATIC SHOCK. :) Well, my POCKET gun load has 2.5x the frontal area of a .22, and 36% more bullet wt(than the 40grs Jeff stipulated, and it's 2200 fps. :)
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