shot wads. 'the combo shot collar and base wad were NOT known, nor was the pie crimp. The wads would often turn sideways, either letting the powder gases scatter the shot,)(and letting the gases blow thru, resulting in little velocity) or the overshot wad would turn, and scatter the pellets. The barrels and chokes weren't NEARLY as polished and uniform as they are today, too. The 12 ga of that era, and the 10ga black powder load sufficed to take game, and today's 2 3/4" 20 ga is BETTER than those loads were. U dont HAVE to beat yourself up with a 12 ga anymore. Put some lead shot into holes bored into the forend and buttstock of a single shot 20 ga, and it will be JUST as "mild" as a 3" 410is (unmodified).