of action, for civilian handgun scenarios, because 90 % of attackers don't MAKE you hit them with a bullet. Furthermore, you'd BETTER end it, MOST of the time, with the FIRST shot. As slow as most people are with a pistol, ONE shot is likely to be ALL that they GET. So an EMPTY pistol is likely to suffice, MOST of the time, and ANY sort of chest hit is pretty likely to suffice, especially if there's 2-3 of them, CLOSE together in time. The odds of even a 1 in 10 malfunctioning pistols "jamming" after the first shot are pretty low, you know, and not much better for the 3rd shot, either. The odds are at least as "good" that a typical rd, say 38 lhp, 230 gr jhp, WONT stop the man, WITH a good chest hit. The odds are REAL high that you aren't alert enough, SKILLED enough, to even get the gun OUT in time, much less get the necessary hits in time. So THAT'S what you should look into. HAVING a gun,IN hand, in time.