Both these cartridges and the rifles and revolvers designed for them were meant to be long range weapons. The Springfield rifle of 1873 carried a very precise, and for that time, expensive 1500 yard sight. Probably a liitle optimistic, but the times suggested that cavalry would often be engaged more than doubling the size of the target. The carbines with a lighter powder load, (55 Grains as opposed to 70 for the rifle) were shorter ranged but still a trained calvaryman was expected to hit a six by six foot target at 600 yards. The Colt .45 was designed for long range also, with practice at 25 to 50 yards, one handed. Political correctness being a non- issue in those day's, both cartidges were meant to put a man (or horse) down and keep him down. These were black powder cartridges. To say the .45/70 modern cartridges produced today are limited to a 200 yard range is ludicrous. Same with the .45 Colt. To say the Colt .45 Single Action Army is limited to a 10 Meter range is to say all of the Army tests of that period were wrong. The Army budget in the post Civil War day's was so small as to be almost criminal. You can bet that the powers to be knew what they needed in the way of small arms and tested them exhaustively before spending any money. What they needed and got was two long range, effective weapons.